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Analysis of common faults of belt conveyor

21st July 2020

Belt deviation

In order to solve this kind of failure, it is important to pay attention to the dimensional accuracy of the installation and daily maintenance. There are many reasons for deviation, which need to be dealt with differently.

1. Adjust the belt of the supporting roller group when the belt of the belt conveyor deviates in the middle of the entire belt conveyor. The position of the roller group can be adjusted to adjust the deviation; the mounting holes on both sides of the roller group are processed into long holes during manufacturing. Make adjustments. The specific adjustment method, the specific method is which side of the belt is biased, which side of the roller set moves forward in the direction of belt advance, or the other side moves backward.

2. Install the self-aligning roller set. There are many types of self-aligning roller groups, such as intermediate shaft type, four-link type, vertical roller type, etc. The principle is to use blocking or rollers to rotate in the horizontal plane to block or generate lateral thrust to make the belt automatically centripetal to adjust the belt running. Partial purpose. Generally, it is reasonable to use this method when the total length of the belt conveyor is short or when the belt conveyor is running in both directions. The reason is that the shorter belt conveyor is easier to run off and not easy to adjust. Long belt conveyors are best not to use this method, because the use of the self-aligning roller set will have a certain impact on the life of the belt.

3. Adjust the position of the driving roller and the reversing roller. The adjustment of the driving drum and the reversing drum is an important part of the belt deviation adjustment. Because a belt conveyor has at least 2 to 5 rollers, the installation position of all rollers must be perpendicular to the centerline of the belt conveyor length. If the deviation is too large, it will inevitably deviate. The adjustment method is similar to that of adjusting the roller set. For the head drum, if the belt deviates to the right side of the drum, the bearing seat on the right side should move forward, and the belt deviates to the left side of the drum, then the bearing seat on the left side should move forward. Move the left bearing seat back or the right bearing seat back. The adjustment method of the tail roller is just the opposite of that of the head roller. Adjustment method. After repeated adjustments until the belt is adjusted to a more ideal position. It is best to install the position accurately before adjusting the drive or changing the direction of the roller.

4. Adjustment of the tension. The adjustment of the belt tension is a very important part of the deviation adjustment of the belt conveyor. The two reversing rollers at the upper part of the weight tension should be perpendicular to the vertical direction of the belt in addition to the length of the belt, that is, to ensure that the centerline of the shaft is horizontal. When using spiral tensioning or hydraulic cylinder tensioning, the two bearing seats of the tensioning roller should be translated at the same time to ensure that the axis of the roller is perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the belt. The specific method of adjusting belt deviation is similar to that of the drum.

5. The influence of the position of the blanking material at the transfer point on the belt deviation. The material falling position at the transfer point has a great influence on the deviation of the belt, especially when the projection of the two belt conveyors on the horizontal plane is vertical. Generally, the relative height of the upper and lower belt conveyors at the transfer point should be considered. The lower the relative height, the greater the horizontal velocity component of the material, and the greater the lateral impact on the lower belt, and the material is also difficult to center. The material on the cross section of the belt is deflected, which will eventually cause the belt to deviate. If the material deviates to the right, the belt deviates to the left, and vice versa. In the design process, the relative height of the two belt conveyors should be increased as much as possible. The form and size of the upper and lower hoppers, guide troughs and other parts of the mobile bulk conveying machinery that are restricted by space should be carefully considered. Generally, the width of the guide groove should be about two-thirds of the belt width. In order to reduce or avoid belt deviation, a baffle plate can be added to block the material and change the direction and position of the material.

6. Adjust the deviation of the two-way running belt conveyor. The adjustment of the deviation of the belt of the two-way belt conveyor is relatively more difficult than the adjustment of the deviation of the one-way belt conveyor. In the specific adjustment, you should adjust one direction first, and then adjust the other direction. When adjusting, carefully observe the relationship between the belt movement direction and the deviation trend, and adjust them one by one. The focus should be on the adjustment of the drive roller and the reversing roller, followed by the adjustment of the idler roller and the adjustment of the material's blanking point. At the same time, it should be noted that when the belt is vulcanized, the force in the length direction of the belt section should be uniform, and the force on both sides should be as equal as possible when the guide chain is used.

Sprinkle handling

Spreading of belt conveyors is a common problem, and the reasons are many. But the key is to strengthen daily maintenance and maintenance.

1. Material sprinkling at the reloading point The material sprinkling at the reloading point is mainly in the blanking hopper, guide trough, etc. For example, the belt conveyor is seriously overloaded, and the rubber skirt of the guide groove of the belt conveyor is damaged. The steel plate at the guide groove is designed to be far from the belt and the rubber skirt is longer to make the material rush out of the guide groove. The above situation can be solved by controlling the transportation capacity and strengthening maintenance.

2. Spreading material when the concave section of the belt is suspended. When the concave section has a small curvature radius, the belt will be suspended. At this time, the belt groove will change because the belt has left the grooved roller set, and the groove angle is generally Make it smaller, so that part of the material is scattered. Therefore, in the design stage, a larger radius of curvature of the concave section should be used as much as possible to avoid such situations. For example, in mobile mechanical ship loader and stacker-reclaimer equipment, in order to shorten the tail car, the concave section here is designed as a non-arc transition zone. When the belt width is selected with a small margin, it is easier to spread the material.

3. Spreading when the belt is running. The spreading when the belt is running is because the height of the two edges of the belt has changed when the belt is running. One side is high and the other side is low. The material is scattered from the lower side. The processing method is to adjust The deviation of the belt.